Matchmaking anywhere between R ? , DR and you may p


To investigate the relationship between diving (DR), tortuosity ( R ? ) and foraging opportunity, the proportion of time seafood were present in video (pfish, all species pooled due to rarity of individual species, which included known or potential prey based on stomach contents; Grainger et al., 2020; see Supplementary Video 2) was quantified as a proxy for prey availability over 15 min windows. Several other non-prey/miscellaneous objects were also observed (e.g., jellyfish, starfish, and detached kelp), but excluded from analysis due to their rarity (absent in >90% of summary windows for most individuals).

fish were investigated by fitting several candidate zero-inflated beta mixed models (ZIBMM, accommodating zeros where fish were absent; Douma and Weedon, 2019) using the “glmmTMB” package, with R ? , DR or DR + R ? as predictors, an individual random intercept or intercept + slope (as for LMMs above), and an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) temporal correlation structure (“ou” function) for irregularly spaced time series (night-time hours between 4 pm and 7 am excluded from analysis; Brooks et al., 2017). Fixed, random effects and correlation structures were specified for both the conditional and zero-inflated components of each model. The favored model was determined using AICc comparisons as above. Convergence failed in several models unless the OU correlation was removed from the conditional and/or zero-inflated component, however this produced correlated residuals and did not improve the AICc. Thus, model selection only considered converged models including the OU structure.

Full Movements and you may Displacement Shortly after Release

Cats adult cams had been deployed with the seven white whales (4 boys and you can 4 women, 168–258 cm Florida) to own nine.7–136.dos h, promoting 258.8 h out of logger analysis (suggest ± SD = thirty-two.4 ± 25.step one h, range = 9.7–87.cuatro h) and you will 81.six h out of clips (suggest ± SD = ten.dos ± cuatro.2 h, variety = 5.0–15.3 h, anywhere between seven have always been and you can 4 pm each day; Table step one). The sharks moved offshore just after release (?10–31 km out of coastline) having an indicate ± SD NLD range on the marking venue out-of forty five.dos ± 61.5 km and NLD rates of just one.1 ± 0.cuatro kilometer h –step one (Table step 1 and Figure 1). Extremely sharks gone southern area-east of your own marking location (mean ± SD NLD hit = 146.6 ± thirty six.7°, Desk step one and Contour step 1). This instant blog post-release direction try corroborated of the films and also the oscillatory dive off sharks between your surface and seabed, on limitation breadth from consecutive dives (approximating seabed depth) increasing before the ?40–60 yards breadth profile (imply ± SD time for you to visited forty m contour = 5.6 ± 3.4 h, assortment 2.3–eleven.3 h, Contour cuatro). One to shark which have an extended deployment years (s370w) travelled 195.dos kilometer southward inside 5.7 days, with an equivalent NLD rate some other somebody (Table step 1 and you may Figure 1B). Tailbeat analyses indicated instances of gliding (zero tailbeat), mainly throughout dive descents (Data step 3, cuatro and Second Movies step one). Sharks attained a mean ± SD restrict depth away from 69.six ± twenty five.2 m (range 41.5–118.4 meters), and generally stayed into the oceans > 40 yards breadth just after the first overseas path (Figure 4). After the a first diving stage, some people had a tendency to swimming top throughout the day and diving a great deal more in the evening (Contour cuatro). However, shark s378w showed an alternate trend, remaining closer to shore (even after an identical deployment size for other someone, Figure 1 and you will Table step 1) and you may diving constantly (Profile 4). Films study indicated that whales swam generally within seabed (mean ± SD, 39.8 ± twenty-five.2% of your energy) otherwise surface (37.step 1 ± twenty four.8%) and you can spent a shorter time in water column (23.step 1 ± 15.6%). Sand was the most famous substratum (38.nine ± 26.0% off full examined video), which have low use of most other habitats (Secondary Data dos, 4).

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